said: What is the mode of devotion of those who perform spiritual
practices with faith but without following the scriptural injunctions,
O Krishna? Is it in the mode of goodness, passion, or ignorance?
TYPES OF FAITH
Krishna said: The natural faith of embodied beings is of three kinds:
Goodness, passion, and ignorance. Now hear about these from Me.
Arjuna, the faith of each is in accordance with one’s own
natural disposition that is governed by Karmic impressions. A person
is known by the faith. One can become whatever one wants to be,
if one constantly contemplates on the object of desire with faith.
in the mode of goodness worship celestial controllers; those in
the mode of passion worship supernatural rulers and demons; and
those in the mode of ignorance worship ghosts and spirits.
who practice severe austerities without following the prescription
of the scriptures; who are full of hypocrisy and egotism; who are
impelled by the force of desire and attachment; who senselessly
torture the elements in their body and also Me who dwells within
the body, know these ignorant persons to be of demonic nature.
TYPES OF FOOD
food preferred by all of us is also of three types. So are the sacrifice,
austerity, and charity. Now hear the distinction between them.
foods that promote longevity, virtue, strength, health, happiness,
and joy are juicy, smooth, substantial, and nutritious. Persons
in the mode of goodness like such foods.
that are very bitter, sour, salty, hot, pungent, dry, and burning;
and cause pain, grief, and disease; are liked by persons in the
mode of passion.
foods liked by people in the mode of ignorance are stale, tasteless,
putrid, rotten, refuses, and impure (such as meat and alcohol).
TYPES OF SACRIFICES
service enjoined by the scriptures, and performed without the desire
for the fruit, with a firm belief and conviction that it is a duty,
is in the mode of goodness.
service that is performed only for show, and aiming for fruit, know
that to be in the mode of passion, O Arjuna.
service that is performed without following the scripture, in which
no food is distributed, which is devoid of mantra, faith, and gift,
is said to be in the mode of ignorance.
OF THOUGHT, WORD, AND DEED
worship of celestial controllers, the priest, guru, and the wise;
purity, honesty, celibacy, and nonviolence; these are said to be
the austerity of deed.
that is non-offensive, truthful, pleasant, beneficial, and is used
for the regular study of scriptures is called the austerity of word.
serenity of mind, gentleness, equanimity, self-control, and the
purity of thought ¾ these are called the austerity of thought.
TYPES OF AUSTERITY
above mentioned threefold austerity (of thought, word, and deed)
practiced by yogis with supreme faith, without a desire for the
fruit, is said to be in the mode of goodness.
that is performed for gaining respect, honor, reverence, and for
the sake of show that yields an uncertain and temporary result is
said to be in the mode of passion.
performed with foolish stubbornness, or with self-torture, or for
harming others, is declared to be in the node of ignorance.
TYPES OF CHARITY
that is given as a matter of duty, to a deserving candidate who
does nothing in return, at the right place and time, is considered
to be charity in the mode of goodness.
that is given unwillingly, or to get something in return, or looking
for some fruit, is said to be in the mode of passion.
that is given at a wrong place and time, and to unworthy persons;
or without paying respect to the receiver or with ridicule, is said
to be in the mode of ignorance.
NAME OF GOD
Spirit is all pervading. The persons with divine qualities, the
Vedas, and the selfless service were created by and from the Spirit.
acts of sacrifice, charity, and austerity prescribed in the scriptures
are always commenced by uttering any one of the many names of God
such as OM, Amen, or Allah by the knowers of the Supreme.
seekers of salvation perform various types of sacrifice, charity,
and austerity by uttering "He is all" without seeking
word "Truth" is used in the sense of Reality and goodness.
The word Truth is also used for an auspicious act, O Arjuna.
in sacrifice, charity, and austerity is also called Truth. The selfless
service for the sake of the Supreme is verily termed as Truth.
is done without faith ¾ whether it is sacrifice, charity,
austerity, or any other act ¾ is useless. It has no value
here or hereafter, O Arjuna.