MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE
Krishna said: I shall further explain to you that supreme knowledge,
the best of all knowledge, knowing that all the sages have attained
supreme perfection after this life.
who have taken refuge in this transcendental knowledge attain unity
with Me; and are neither born at the time of creation, nor afflicted
at the time of dissolution.
BEINGS ARE BORN FROM THE UNION OF SPIRIT AND MATTER
material Nature is the womb of creation wherein I place the seed
of Consciousness from which all beings are born, O Arjuna.
forms are produced in all different wombs, O Arjuna, the material
Nature is their body-giving mother; and the Spirit or Consciousness
is the life-giving father.
THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE BIND THE SPIRIT SOUL TO THE BODY
activity, and inertia — these three modes or ropes material
Nature fetter the eternal individual soul to the body, O Arjuna.
these, the mode of goodness is illuminating and good, because it
is pure. The mode of goodness fetters the living entity by attachment
to happiness and knowledge, O sinless Arjuna.
know that the mode of passion is characterized by intense craving
for sense gratification, and is the source of material desire and
attachment. The mode of passion binds the living entity by attachment
to the fruits of work.
O Arjuna, that the mode of ignorance ¾ the deluder of living
entity ¾ is born of inertia. The mode of ignorance binds
living entity by carelessness, laziness, and excessive sleep.
Arjuna, the mode of goodness attaches one to happiness of learning
and knowing the Spirit, the mode of passion attaches to action,
and the mode of ignorance attaches to negligence by covering the
OF THREE MODES OF NATURE
prevails by suppressing passion and ignorance; passion prevails
by suppressing goodness and ignorance; and ignorance prevails by
suppressing goodness and passion, O Arjuna.
the light of Self-knowledge glitters all the senses in the body,
then it should be known that goodness is predominant.
Arjuna, when passion is predominant; greed, activity, undertaking
of selfish works, restlessness, and excitement arise.
Arjuna, when inertia is predominant; ignorance, inactivity, carelessness,
and delusion arise.
MODES ARE ALSO THE VEHICLES OF TRANSMIGRATION FOR THE INDIVIDUAL
who dies during the dominance of goodness goes to heaven ¾
the pure world of knowers of the Supreme.
one dies during the dominance of passion, one is reborn as attached
to action (or the utilitarian type); and dying in ignorance, one
is reborn as lower creatures.
fruit of good action is said to be beneficial and pure, the fruit
of passionate action is pain, and the fruit of ignorant action is
arises from mode of goodness; greed arises from mode of passion;
and negligence, delusion, and slowness of mind arise from the mode
who are established in goodness go to heaven; passionate persons
are reborn in the mortal world; and the insipid ones, abiding in
the mode of ignorance, go to lower planets of hell, or take birth
as lower creatures depending on the degree of their ignorance.
NIRVANA AFTER TRANSCENDING THREE MODES OF MATERIAL NATURE
visionaries perceive no doer other than the powers of the Supreme
Being ¾ the modes of material Nature; and know That which
is above and beyond these modes; then they attain Nirvana or salvation.
one rises above the three modes of material Nature that originate
in the body, one attains immortality or salvation, and is freed
from the pains of birth, old age, and death.
PROCESS OF RISING ABOVE THE THREE MODES
said: What are the marks of those who have transcended the three
modes of material Nature, and what is their conduct? How does one
transcend these three modes of material Nature, O Lord Krishna?
Krishna said: One who neither hates the presence of enlightenment,
activity, and delusion; nor desires for them when they are absent;
who remains like a witness without being affected by the modes of
material Nature; and stays firmly attached to the Lord without wavering
¾ thinking that the modes of material Nature only are operating.
one who depends on the Lord and is indifferent to pain and pleasure;
to whom a clod, a stone, and gold are alike; to whom the dear and
the unfriendly are alike; who is of firm mind, who is calm in censure
and in praise, and the one who is indifferent to honor and disgrace,
who is impartial to friend and foe, and who has renounced the sense
of doership ¾ is said to have transcended the modes of material
OF THREE MODES CAN BE CUT BY DEVOTIONAL LOVE
one who offers service to Me with love and unswerving devotion transcends
three modes of material Nature, and becomes fit for Nirvana, or
I am the basis (or source) of the immortal Spirit, of everlasting
cosmic order (Dharma), and of the absolute bliss.